Hepatitis B destruction

Hepatitis B and C

An estimated 325 million people worldwide are living with viral hepatitis B and C. There are 9 times more people infected with hepatitis than HIV and it is the second largest infectious disease killer with 1.4 million deaths a year, after tuberculosis. Roughly 80% of people living with hepatitis B and C lack prevention knowledge, testing and treatment services.

The World Health Organization has declared that viral hepatitis is an international public health challenge comparable to other major communicable diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. While these have become less lethal, the number of viral hepatitis-related deaths are increasing.

Hepatitis B

Why do we need a cure for Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most widespread form of hepatitis worldwide even though a prophylactic vaccine and effective antiviral therapies are available. However, no cure currently exists.

In 2015, WHO estimated that 257 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection and it resulted in an estimated 887,000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis is responsible for 30% of all cases of cirrhosis and 53% of liver cancer. In the upcoming decades, liver cancer deaths are expected to increase while most other cancer deaths are on the decrease.

Is now a good time to find a cure for HBV?

There is global momentum pushing for a cure of HBV. Recent discoveries are enabling for a new era in HBV research, including:

  • Identification of the NTCP receptor (the point of entry the virus uses to infect cells)

  • Improved cell culture and animal models

  • The characterisation of the function of HBx (the viral protein that favours the replication of the virus)

  • Increased knowledge of HBV minichromosome biology

How can we cure HBV?

As the natural clearance of acute HBV does not always result in eradication of the reservoir ccDNA, complete eradication of the virus (and all its replicative intermediates) may be an unrealistic outcome. Therefore, what will most likely be required is a combination of strategies that target both the viral replication cycle and enhance the immune response to viral antigens, resulting in a functional cure.

Hep B Surface Antigens

Catalog # Name Source
orb82356 Hepatitis B Surface Ag (ad) protein Human Plasma
orb108198 HBsAg protein Human Blood
orb176371 HBsAg (ay) protein Human Blood
orb308705 HBsAg-Ay protein Human Blood
orb308706 HBsAg-Ad protein Human blood

Hep B Surface Recombinant Antigens

Catalog # Name Source
orb82327 HBsAg (ad) recombinant protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae
orb358061 HBsAg (adr) protein CHO Cells
orb82535 HBsAg (ayw) recombinant protein S. cerevisiae
orb82536 HBsAg (adw) recombinant protein S. cerevisiae

Hep B Core Recombinant Antigen

Catalog # Name Source
orb82587 Hepatitis B Core Ag, recombinant protein Pichia pastoris

Hep B e Recombinant Antigen

Catalog # Name Source
orb82519 Hepatitis B Ag 'e' epitope recombinant protein E. coli

Hepatitis C

Facts

  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is found worldwide, with an estimated 71 million people believed to be living with chronic HCV leading to almost 400,000 deaths each year.

  • There is currently no effective vaccine for hepatitis C, but antiviral medicines can cure more than 95% of persons with the infection.

  • New HCV infections are usually asymptomatic and an estimated 57 million people worldwide are unaware they are living with the disease.

  • Most people affected by hepatitis C live in LMICs where there is a lack of access to testing. In 2015, of those diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C, only 7% had access to treatment that cured within three months.

  • HCV damages the liver slowly over many years, often leading to irreversible scarring (cirrhosis).

  • Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cancer.

Is now a good time to be researching HBV?

WHO have committed to eliminate hepatitis C by 2030 and there is widespread support to help achieve this with initiatives from World Hepatitis Alliance, Clinton Health Access Initiative and Medicines Patent Pool.

There are several vaccines in development which might prove to be the most powerful tool for defeating HCV.

Paired Antigens for ELISA & Lateral Flow Double Antigen Sandwich Assay:

Catalog # Name Source
orb316809 E. coli HCV NS3/Core/NS4/NS5 protein E. coli
orb316810 E. coli HCV NS3/Core/NS4/NS5 protein E. coli

Antigens for ELISA:

Catalog # Name Source
orb82588 HCV Core Ag, recombinant protein Pichia pastoris
orb82469 HCV NS-3 c33c, Subtype 1a, recombinant protein E. coli
orb82483 HCV Nucleocapsid/NS3/NS4/NS5 recombinant protein E. coli

Bibliography

  1. World Health Organization. 2019. Hepatitis B. [Online]. [23 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-hepatitis-day/2019

  2. NHS. 2019. Hepatitis B. [Online]. [18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hepatitis-b/

  3. World Health Organization. 2019. Hepatitis B. [Online]. [18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b

  4. British liver trust. 2019. Hepatitis B. [Online]. [18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/liver-information/liver-conditions/hepatitis-b/

  5. International Coalition to Eliminate HBV. 2019. Hepatitis C. [Online]. [31 July 2019]. Available from: http://ice-hbv.org

  6. International Coalition to Eliminate HBV. 2019. Hepatitis C. [Online]. [31 July 2019]. Available from: http://ice-hbv.org/hep-b-cure/why/

  7. ISGlobal. 2018. The Time to Cure Hepatitis B is Now. [Online]. [31 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.isglobal.org/en_GB/-/ahora-es-el-momento-de-curar-la-hepatitis-b

  8. ISGlobal. 2016. Hepatitis C: The New Battleground for Access to Essential Medicines. [Online]. [31 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.isglobal.org/en_GB/-/hepatitis-c-el-nuevo-campo-de-batalla-por-el-acceso-a-medicamentos-esenciales

  9. NHS. 2018. Hepatitis C. [Online]. [18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hepatitis-c/

  10. World Health Organization. 2019. Hepatitis C. [Online]. [18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c

  11. 50 Years of Global Health Progress. IFPMA. Discovery to Cure in 25 Years. [Online]. [06 August 2019]. Available from: https://50years.ifpma.org/in-focus/hepatitis-c/