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    Tumour Necrosis Factors (TNFs)


    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFs) proteins are cytokines, which are signaling molecules involved in the regulation of immune responses, inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). There are two main types of TNF proteins:

    TNF-alpha (TNF-α)

    This is the most well-known and extensively studied TNF protein. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts can also produce it. TNF-alpha plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflammation, immune response, and the induction of apoptosis (cell death).

    TNFa Pathway

    TNF-beta (TNF-β) /lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-α)

    This TNF protein is produced primarily by activated T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. TNF-beta also plays a role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation, though its functions may differ slightly from TNF-alpha. It is involved in lymphoid tissue development and organization and contributes to the activation of other immune cells.

    TNFb Pathway

    Additionally, there are other members of the TNF superfamily, which are structurally related cytokines with diverse functions in immune regulation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Some of these include:

    • Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand   (TRAIL)
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 10   (TNFSF10)
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Weak Inducer of Apoptosis   (TWEAK)
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13   (TNFSF13)

    TNF proteins govern diverse aspects of immune function and tissue homeostasis, making them crucial targets for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

    Back to Active Cytokines