NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Transcriptional programs regulated by NF-κB are essential to the development and maintenance of the immune system, skeletal system and epithelium. In these settings, NF-κB contributes to the control of cell survival, differentiation and proliferation. Aberrant activation of NF-κB has been associated with numerous diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. The NF-κB signaling pathway is most characterized and well understood in its role in chronic inflammation and auto-immune disease.
NF-κB proteins are characterized by the presence of a 300-amino acid sequence on the N-terminus called the Rel homology domain (RHD). Five members comprise the NF-κB protein family: RelA/p65, RelB, c-Rel, p50 and p52. These proteins bind to kB sites as homo- or hetero- dimers which can have a positive or negative impact on gene transcription.
There are two types of NF-κB signaling pathway: canonical and non-canonical. Both require activation through post translational modifications of IkB inhibitors. Canonical pathway activation predominantly occurs through BCR, TCR, TLR4, IL-1R or TNF-R receptors, whereas the non-canonical pathway involves receptor activation of CD40L, BAFF or lymphotoxin-B.
Helping your research
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